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Can I Get A Witness?

Hav­ing trou­ble under­stand­ing why your hotspot isn’t get­ting a Wit­ness? Are you see­ing mes­sages about being above or below the bounds of an RSSI met­ric? Let’s dig in!

We’ll start with this, the infa­mous PoC V10 SNR lim­its graphic:

I’ll explain the X and Y axis in a bit, but at first glace it’s pret­ty basic. 

Green = Good, Red (pink?) = Bad. Find the num­bers report­ed for your spe­cif­ic Wit­ness event, see where they inter­sect, and you’ll know why you have an Invalid wit­ness. Yes, yes, yes, if you’re a “radio head” you instant­ly see some­thing wrong, but for now let’s keep it simple.

We’ll go through two exam­ples; 1 invalid, and 1 valid. Here’s an invalid witness.

Three things are listed: 

  • The dis­tance in meters. This is used to cal­cu­late FSPL, or Free Space Path Loss. More on that in a sec.
  • The sig­nal strength in dBm (RSSI)
  • The lev­el of sig­nal above the noise floor, in dB. (SNR)

Here’s how that wit­ness charts out:

With a high SNR (any­thing above 0 is high for Heli­um), at only 914 meters this sig­nal is basi­cal­ly too good for the distance.

Ok, so what does it look like if the wit­ness is valid?

We’re look­ing at the same three things, but now we’re at about twice the dis­tance, and if you remem­ber your dB strength rules (every 3 dou­bles or halves), about a quar­ter of the SNR.

Easy enough to read a chart, right? But what does it mean, and how can you get more valid witnesses?

We’ll start by defin­ing two things first: RSSI and SNR.

RSSI = Received Sig­nal Strength Indi­ca­tor. In very sim­ple terms, RSSI mea­sures the strength of the radio sig­nal you’re receiving. 

In RSSI mea­sure­ments, the larg­er the neg­a­tive num­ber, the weak­er the sig­nal. ‑130 is weak­er than ‑100. In gen­er­al, in the land of Heli­um, you want your RSSI to be between ‑82 and ‑134.

SNR = Sig­nal to Noise Ratio. This is a mea­sure of the qual­i­ty of a sig­nal com­pared to the back­ground radio “noise”. It’s expressed in terms of dB (deci­bels), and the big­ger the num­ber, the bet­ter. Except when it’s not.

Wait, a sig­nal can be too good? Yep. 

When Heli­um start­ed (and basi­cal­ly, up until the present, August 2021), Heli­um had a prob­lem: They were sell­ing radio devices. Why is that a prob­lem? This’ll get more com­pli­cat­ed before it gets sim­ple, so buck­le up and pay attention.

Every­one (in the US, and in most coun­tries) sell­ing a radio device has to have it cer­ti­fied by some nation­al body. In the US, that body is the FCC. One of the things they check dur­ing cer­ti­fi­ca­tion is that your device does­n’t break any emis­sion-strength rules (tech­ni­cal­ly EIRP, more on that here.)

Heli­um is required to stay with­in the lim­its of the rules. To do that, they used a low gain anten­na (1.8 dBi gain) and a rea­son­able amount of ener­gy out­put (-27 dBm). That put them at ‑28.8 dBi for max EIRP, well with­in the lim­its for the US, which is a max EIRP of ‑36 dBi. 

The FCC also requires a man­u­fac­tur­er to build units that “pre­vent” the con­sumer from chang­ing the anten­na. Heli­um accom­plished this by using RP-SMA con­nec­tions. Yep, that counts as pre­ven­tion. It’s an out­dat­ed sys­tem, for sure.

An addi­tion­al mea­sure tak­en to ensure there was no encour­age­ment to “improve” your anten­na (and even they acknowl­edge it isn’t a great one) is to set fair­ly strict and some­times unrea­son­able rules regard­ing what a received radio sig­nal should be in terms of the sig­nal strength and quality.

This is accom­plished in part by mea­sur­ing ALL anten­nas (even your high gain fan­cy wazoo anten­nas) AS IF THEY WERE THE HELIUM STOCK ANTENNA.

No, that does­n’t make sense. Yes, it was rea­son­able at the time. Yes, it will be changed. 

How did Heli­um come up with those rules, and why? I’ll start with the Why: To stop cheaters, also known as “gamers” because they game the sys­tem with­out pro­vid­ing any actu­al benefit.

Cheaters used to be able to just plug in a bunch of hotspots stacked on top of each oth­er. Those hotspots would wit­ness each oth­er from inch­es away while report­ing false­ly assert­ed loca­tions that made them seem to be much fur­ther apart. It appeared they were pro­vid­ing great cov­er­age. So they earned. Mas­sive­ly earned. 

One of the most egre­gious exam­ples hap­pened in a lit­tle town called Modesto, in Cal­i­for­nia. At the peak of the cheat­ing, in late sum­mer 2020, a group of hotspots (prob­a­bly in a clos­et, and not even in Modesto) were earn­ing thou­sands of HNT per day. Yes, per day. 

Heli­um has since worked to com­bat gam­ing in more and more nuanced ways, but the way they approached Modesto was with a giant radio-sig­nal mea­sur­ing ham­mer: The RSSI/SNR chart. This was cre­at­ed by a Heli­um employ­ee who ana­lyzed almost half a mil­lion PoC receipts and looked for out­lier results. 

He was approach­ing this in clas­sic Sil­i­con Val­ley fash­ion: Look at the actu­al dataset, don’t rely on “old” thought, and fig­ure out a new way to do a bet­ter job. Admirable, but it turned out to penal­ize not only egre­gious gamers, but many of the rest of us who just want­ed to do an above aver­age job.

The Modesto clus­ter was gut­ted, but the RSSI/SNR chart stayed in place. Oth­er changes (HIP 15 & 17) entered into the sys­tem and incen­tivized spread­ing out and being reward­ed for pro­vid­ing bet­ter and bet­ter cov­er­age, but the RSSI/SNR chart stayed.

It was­n’t because the Heli­um team was ignor­ing it. They had much a big­ger chal­lenge to sur­mount: Get­ting Val­ida­tors online so the blockchain could stop suf­fo­cat­ing itself. With that mis­sion-crit­i­cal task accom­plished, they can now (summer/late sum­mer 2021) turn to mak­ing sure the blockchain improves in accu­rate­ly reward­ing superb coverage.

Which brings us, almost, to today, some­time in August of 2021. With PoCv11 (Proof of Cov­er­age Ver­sion 11) on the hori­zon, we’re about to take a strong step in the direc­tion of reward­ing strong & clear sig­nal cov­er­age over short and long distances. 

As you’re see­ing in the app, Heli­um is offer­ing you the chance to enter your anten­na gain and ele­va­tion. This will help them more accu­rate­ly assess whether or not your wit­ness­es are valid. As of today (Aug 4th, 2021), those two met­rics don’t actu­al­ly make a dif­fer­ence for you, the hotspot own­er, but…they will.

In the future, when PoCv11 comes online, the details you enter will be applied to your wit­ness receipts. In order to com­bat gam­ing (essen­tial­ly to stop every­one from just say­ing they have a 50 dBi gain anten­na so all of their wit­ness­es are good), Heli­um will simul­ta­ne­ous­ly apply your gain AND decrease your trans­mit strength. That’s fair, by the way, and you should want that to happen. 

I know, I know. Nobody likes decreased strength. Trust me on this one: LoRa already gives you TONS of range. Your goal is not long range, it’s increased earn­ings, and earn­ings come from valid wit­ness receipts. 

What will that look like? Full details over here, but for those of you who aren’t deep into radio geek­ery, the big pic­ture is that Heli­um will drop SNR and just use RSSI and dis­tance. Here’s a pro­posed chart. Meters on the Y axis, RSSI on the X axis.

Ok, so you’ve got three lines on there: Red, Yel­low, Green. The lines rep­re­sent the cur­rent cut­off (Red) for a valid wit­ness as well as pro­posed future cut­offs (Yel­low and Green). 

You’re also see­ing a bunch of blue dots. Those blue dots rep­re­sent report­ed wit­ness met­rics of RSSI at some dis­tance. The green line is the most restric­tive, but is based on actu­al val­ues of RSSI at some giv­en dis­tance, which is far more accu­rate than the cur­rent RSSI/SNR curve.

To keep it sim­ple, this means that in the future, when PoCv11 replaces the cur­rent ver­sion, a hotspot using a non-stock anten­na will not be penal­ized for it. Whether the yel­low, or green, or some oth­er line is used is still up for debate. 

We’ll wrap this up with one of the most impor­tant take­aways: What anten­na will help you stay with­in the pro­posed lim­its? Easy: It’s the LOWEST gain anten­na you can use. See how the curves all shoot up at a fair­ly defined RSSI? That’s the key. If your RSSI is even a few points “to the left”, you can be on the wrong side of the line. 

This helps explain why in many cas­es, when you get that fan­cy super high gain anten­na, your valid wit­ness­es dis­ap­pear. So what anten­na should you buy?

My rec­om­men­da­tion is still the HNTen­na, but any of the low gain (4 or less) anten­nas in your coun­tries fre­quen­cy, from a wide vari­ety of sources like McGill, Par­ley Labs, L‑com, or Laird will be fine.

If you’re will­ing to explore your inner geek and you like to tin­ker, take a look at atten­u­a­tors. They’ll atten­u­ate (or weak­en) the sig­nal (both tx & rx), but they’ll also increase the SNR, so exper­i­ment cau­tious­ly. Here are a few options:

Expen­sive (~$400) and unnec­es­sary, but hey, if you want a great unit — Fairview 0–11 dB Step Attenuator

Cheap­er ($25), less pre­cise with­out extra mea­sur­ing equip­ment — ATM RF Vari­able Atten­u­a­tor AF033-10 DC-1000 MHz 50 Ohm

An atten­u­a­tor decreas­es your sig­nal strength both ways. They’re not a great long term option. The best option is to use a low gain anten­na and get it up high in the right loca­tion. If you see that the Near­son 9 or RAK 8 that you bought when you were in “Big­ger is bet­ter” mode gets more valid wit­ness­es once you’ve tak­en a lit­tle sauce out of it, well, you’ll have some use­ful data points (that I’d love to hear about.)

Want to go deep­er? Con­sid­er hir­ing me to help you out; I love help­ing peo­ple crush with Helium.

Hap­py Witnessing!

**This post was writ­ten with tech­ni­cal over­sight from @jerm on Dis­cord. He is an absolute wiz­ard with this. All right­eous accu­ra­cy is his, any errors are mine. ‑Nik@GKI

65 thoughts on “Can I Get A Witness?”

  1. Its nice to read arti­cle like this both for non tech­ni­cal and tech­ni­cal peo­ple. Look­ing for­ward to it for some oth­er arti­cles espe­cial­ly in min­ing and anten­na place­ment, etc…

  2. Thanks Nik, I’m in a spot with only 3 hotspots and I keep get­ting an invalid wit­ness to the clos­est one (900 meters away) due to high SNR. Since I can’t find out who the own­er is to work out the prob­lem, should I just try down­siz­ing my anten­na? I’m on a 5.8 db on a res­i­den­tial roof, the hot spot in ques­tion is report­ed to be an 8db. This is very frus­trat­ing but your arti­cle helps put it into perspective.

  3. Hi Peter, you could try swap­ping out for the stock anten­na to see if that works, or you can add an atten­u­a­tor to your anten­na and see what that changes. Glad the arti­cle helped make sense of why this is happening.

  4. Hi Nik! Could you please pro­vide some advice, my 2 bob­cats since last 5 days sud­dey have NO wit­ness­es. I have had lots of wit­ness­es and earn­ing for almost 2 months since I installed them, i am NOT relayed, always online and ful­ly synced, have always used only the stock 4dbi anten­na. Noth­ing changed to my inter­net con­nec­tion or ISP, so it is real­ly con­fus­ing why sud­den­ly my bea­cons get 0 wit­ness­es in BOTH of my 2 bob­cats (2 dif­fer­ent loca­tions). I read a lot on this site and many oth­er sitea and I could­nt find a solu­tion? Thanks!

  5. Hi Cristi, hmm, I’d start by check­ing the anten­nas, although if they both stopped wit­ness­ing at the same time that is confusing.

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  7. Excel­lent expla­na­tion; thank you. A cou­ple of ques­tions came to me as I read it. Per­haps you might clar­i­fy for me.

    Last year, when cov­er­age was sparce, I installed a 9dBi Near­son about 7 feet above the peak of my roof, intend­ing to pro­vide cov­er­age over a wide area. I also placed some yagis aimed towards (then) under pop­u­lat­ed ter­ri­to­ries. Will these con­fig­u­ra­tions put me at a dis­ad­van­tage, under PoCv11, unless I put atten­u­a­tors into the feed lines?

    Might it become advan­ta­geous to use lossy inex­pen­sive cable rather than LMR-400, as a nat­ur­al atten­u­a­tor , when installing direc­tion­al / high-gain anten­nas, or mount­ing any anten­nas at sub­stan­tial elevation?

  8. Hey GP, good ques­tion. I’d say the 9 dBi prob­a­bly puts you close to the invalid edge any­way, and the yagis almost always push you over (depend­ing on gain, of course). Did you suc­cess­ful­ly get all those anten­nas linked to one min­er and work­ing? You’re prob­a­bly bet­ter off installing a high qual­i­ty low gain anten­na with short anten­na cable rather than fid­dling with atten­u­a­tion through cable loss.

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  10. Hel­lo , very infor­ma­tive arti­cle . I have a net­work of 10 min­ers with very clear LOS between them and dis­tances between 400m and 5 km . I keep com­ing across the issue of invalid wit­ness­es where my rssi is at ‑110 to ‑120 ans SNR is 2–8 pos­i­tive . I am only using 4 dbi stock anten­nas. This leads me to believe i have to take action to reduce my sig­nal strength ? Would this be a valid approach ?

  11. Hi George, looks like the SNR is the cul­prit. You could decrease sig­nal strength with atten­u­a­tors (pro­fes­sion­al or oth­er­wise) or just wait ’til PoCv11 comes out, which *should* be in the next week or so.

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  13. Hel­lo — I’m a new­bie to elec­tron­ics and Heli­um in gen­er­al and had a ques­tion regard­ing atten­u­a­tors. My wit­ness­es from my neigh­bor hexa­gons are being men­tioned as invalid based on that chart because are sig­nals are too strong since I don’t live in an area with large build­ings or trees. I think an atten­u­a­tor might help me get more of these wit­ness­es based on what you wrote above.

    Can I buy any gener­ic atten­u­a­tor to reduce the db lev­els by 1 or 2? Do I need a spe­cial­ly made one that will fit the heli­um min­er? Do i just put it on my min­er right before my anten­na? I don’t want to pur­chase the wrong item but I’m will­ing to take a $10 bet to increase my hotspots con­nec­tions with my neigh­bors. Ama­zon has quite a few but I just want­ed to know if I need­ed any­thing else special. 

    Im cur­rent­ly think­ing my nor­mal Sense­cap Min­er with an atten­u­a­tor for just 1 or 2 db and then the nor­mal anten­na should be enough to solve my problem.

  14. Hi Dami­an,
    Sure, you can try an atten­u­a­tor, look for one with the right con­nec­tions & an imped­ance of 50 ohms. Are you on the stock anten­na? If not, try using that. One thing to keep in mind is that while an atten­u­a­tor will damp­en the sig­nal, it’ll also increase the SNR, which will increase the like­li­hood of an invalid wit­ness. I’d approach this as a fun exper­i­ment rather than a guar­an­teed earn­ing increase. : ) The oth­er (cheap & fast, but not beau­ti­ful or real­ly mea­sur­able) is to use met­al screens around your anten­na, or just put your anten­na inside.

  15. Thanks for the speedy response, Nik. I ordered a cou­ple atten­u­a­tors to try out from Ama­zon, hope­ful­ly they fit the min­er. Hon­est­ly I’m not sure what the “right con­nec­tions” are — I lit­er­al­ly know lit­tle to noth­ing about elec­tron­ics. I’m assum­ing these are all one size fits all. 

    My prob­lem isn’t the RSSI mea­sure but the SNR mea­sure. My neigh­bors hex have low enough RSSIs (-90s) but the SNR is still too strong (10+) . I was hop­ing the atten­u­a­tor would reduce the SNR just by 1–3 DB and make them valid wit­ness­es. Am I inter­pret­ing this wrong? Inter­est­ing­ly enough I AM using the stock anten­na haha. I think my neigh­bor hex­es might have a stronger anten­na though as they are con­nect­ing to a ton of oth­er nodes based on their activ­i­ty his­to­ry. I wit­ness them a lot in my activ­i­ty each day, but its always just bare­ly inval­i­dat­ed based on the chart for RSSI vs SNR. Is there any­thing I can use to decrease the SNR just a tad? I think the RSSI is fine to be hon­est, but SNR is too good as you men­tion in your arti­cle. Maybe this prob­lem dis­ap­pears after the update where strong anten­nas arent penal­ized by the algo..

  16. Hi Dami­an, agree re. SNR being your prob­lem, and the atten­u­a­tors will prob­a­bly not help that, although they may get the RSSI where you want/need it to be. Hell, they might help. RF is weird. PoCv11 should solve this for ya. 🙂

  17. Thanks for all these details Nik. I was excit­ed to upgrade my stock Bob­cat 4dbi anten­na to an 8dbi roof mount­ed anten­na, but upon installing it this last week, I began get­ting quite a few of these invalid wit­ness­es which has been real­ly frus­trat­ing. Your post and expla­na­tion real­ly helped. 

    Have you seen any offi­cial tar­get date for release of PoCv11? How will we know when it is offi­cial­ly released? I’m anx­ious to see if it fix­es these prob­lems, or if I need to take more dras­tic mea­sures of mov­ing the anten­na into the attic or start explor­ing atten­u­a­tor options. Thanks again for your help.

  18. Hi Chad, as of Sept 15th 2021 it *looks like* PocV11 will be live with­in a week or so. Heli­um has just released the update over the air that enables it, so once they’re sat­is­fied that it’s work­ing they’ll hit the switch and we’ll be on the new system.

  19. Hi Nik,
    How might PoCv11 affect high­er dbi anten­nas in the 5+ dbi ranges? Did I read you cor­rect­ly when you said that the trans­mit pow­er of the high­er dbi anten­nas would be sig­nif­i­cant­ly reduced with v11? I read on Red­dit that v11 will affect anten­nas that are above 1.2dbi. That’s strange espe­cial­ly con­sid­er­ing that some OEMs even sup­ply 4dbi antennas.

  20. I guess the ques­tion I meant to ask was, “Would it be a waste of mon­ey to spend an extra $150 buy­ing and set­ting up a 9dbi anten­na if your trans­mit scale is 0.56, and you are try­ing to reach hotspots with healthy trans­mit scales of 1.0?” When v11 gets ful­ly imple­ment­ed, would a 9dbi anten­na go only as far as a 1.2dbi or 3dbi antenna?

  21. Hi Ndu, tx pow­er will be reduced by the gain of the anten­na. So a 9 dBi gain anten­na will get a 9 dB reduc­tion in power.

  22. Yes, that would be a waste of mon­ey. Don’t use gain for extra *range*, use gain to punch through light obsta­cles (rows of trees, from inside a build­ing to out­side, etc.)

  23. I see, thanks. 

    They claim to have algo­rithms to mea­sure anten­na pow­er and deter­mine loca­tion through tri­an­gu­la­tion. Does that mean that my 6.8dBi anten­na (entered as a 5.8dBi in the app) would be found out and treat­ed as a 6.8dBi antenna?

  24. Con­sid­er­ing that out­door anten­nas have cable and con­nec­tor loss­es that aren’t evi­dent in direct­ly con­nect­ed anten­nas, might it make sense to account for those loss­es in the app data by enter­ing an actu­al 5.8dBi anten­na as an 6.8dBi — account­ing for 1.0 in losses?

  25. Hi Ndu, maybe. I don’t think a 1 dBi dif­fer­ence will be huge, but it might make the occa­sion­al difference.

  26. The Peo­ple’s Net­work should be re-named “The Urban and Sub­ur­ban Peo­ple’s Net­work” if POCv11 is turned on. Dis­tance has a real effect on RSSI and SNR, for that mat­ter. If they are attempt­ing to fix the “invalid data” prob­lem the mar­ket or real­ly the min­ers who repeat­ed­ly are invalid will learn to change their anten­nas so that they get paid. If you don’t get paid for your prod­uct (valid con­tact) then you’ll change your prod­uct so you will be valid.
    Rur­al min­ers will be hurt the most since their abil­i­ty to con­tact the more dense­ly hex­es will be impacted.
    I do not under­stand how this will help pop­u­late the more sparse­ly inhab­it­ed areas. It appears the talk about spread­ing out the den­si­ty of the min­ers was just talk as POCv11 as writ­ten will dis­cour­age rur­al participation.
    If your sys­tem has < ‑37 dB then you should be good to go with­out some­one cut­ting your TX pow­er. That is legal.
    The min­er oper­a­tor should be the one to decide if he/she wants to be paid by arrang­ing their sys­tem for their area to pro­duce valid contacts.

  27. Pos­si­bly, although I don’t think PocV11 is the only thing Heli­um is doing to improve RF assess­ment of the net­work. I think we’ll see strong incen­tives for cov­er­age of high­ways and trans­porta­tion cor­ri­dors in the com­ing months. PoCv11 is just one step in the process.

  28. Spo­radicE,
    “If your sys­tem has < ?37 dB then you should be good to go with­out some­one cut­ting your TX pow­er.” <- Was this ref­er­enced some­where we can read? Would that num­ber be 27dB for the min­er and 10dB for the antenna?

  29. Looks like I came to the right place. I just upgrad­ed from the stock Sense­cap 2.6 dbi anten­na to an 8 dbi because I’m a new­bie and fig­ured “this will make more HNT.” I’m on the third floor of a house on a hill in sub­ur­bia, high­er than most oth­ers around and have this giant 8 dbi next to a bed­room window.

    Sud­den­ly after 2 days of not much improve­ment, there are lots of invalid wit­ness­es in the last 3 hours. Seems like the smartest thing to do is just plug back in the 2.6 dbi? Obvi­ous question? 

    Or maybe stick with 8 dbi and move it to the ground lev­el? That seems irra­tional though. Any thoughts would be appre­ci­at­ed, thanks

  30. Nik,

    I got 5–6 atten­u­a­tors to test out but none of them fit my min­er. I have a sen­scap m1. Do you have any advice on which atten­u­a­tors I should take a look at buy­ing? Still in the sci­en­tif­ic exper­i­ment phase so I don’t mind doing the test­ing for the com­mu­ni­ty on this one haha.

  31. What are the specs when using an atten­u­a­tor, as in just make sure it is an RF and same ohms? I have nev­er heard of this but need to knock my anten­na down a few dbs

  32. Hi Dami­an, when you say they don’t “fit”, does that mean that con­nec­tors aren’t match­ing up? You can buy con­nec­tor kits to solve that (if that’s the case.)

  33. Hi Bran­don, 50 ohms should do it. Most of the time you’re bet­ter off just buy­ing the right anten­na. Atten­u­a­tors can be fun to muck around with, but they car­ry addi­tion­al hur­dles like increas­ing SNR, and you need to pay atten­tion to the cor­rect connectors.

  34. I’m not sure why you sug­gest the use of atten­u­a­tors. This would affect your RX capa­bil­i­ties, and as far as I know TX pow­er will be adjust­ed by the hotspot to remain with­in both region­al reg­u­la­tions and PoVv11 lim­its. Hence in real­i­ty all you should do is update your cor­rect anten­na dbi (minus cable loss), and you should be fine — even with a high dbi antenna.

  35. That’s a good point, thank you! Atten­u­a­tors aren’t the best option; the best option is to buy and use a low gain anten­na up high in the right place. 🙂 But…many peo­ple want to tin­ker, so I sug­gest the atten­u­a­tors for the tinkerers.

  36. NIk,
    I take it that with PoCv11 in view, Hnten­na would prob­a­bly halt their work on the 3+ dBi anten­na you men­tioned in a dif­fer­ent post?

  37. I meant that Hnten­na might not devel­op 5.8dBi or high­er dBi anten­nas now that PoCv11 plans to penal­ize high­er gain setups. You men­tioned some­where in an ear­li­er post that Hnnten­na was work­ing on high­er gain ver­sion of the their the Hnntenna.

  38. Nik, you still feel­ing con­fi­dent that the HNTen­na 3 dbi are great indoor and out­door options even with the forth-com­ing PoCv11? Do you know or have you test­ed the dif­fer­ence between their indoor and out­door 3 dbis?

  39. Hi Todd, yep, they’ll be excel­lent for PoCv11. I haven’t test­ed indoor vs out­door in a head-to-head, but in talk­ing to the HNTen­na folks they’ve seen both per­form well, even see­ing the indoor do well out­doors (just seal the con­nec­tion point well.)

  40. Nik — apolo­gies for the late response, been busy with work. Yes, it seems the atten­u­a­tors arent the right size for the Sense­Cap min­ers? They seem too large to attach every time I’ve tried. What type of con­nec­tor should I be look­ing for?

  41. Nik, thanks very much for tak­ing the time to respond. I went back to the stock 2.6 anten­na as you sug­gest­ed instead of the 8db and invalid wit­ness­es stopped. Nice! Thanks! I 

    I was able to get the stock above my roof (using a super thin, long, and strong piece of fresh bam­boo of all things attached to a nifty light­weight wood from out of a win­dow:) It’s up to a mod­est 0.8 HNT/day up from 0.3/day. I’m able to take in my con­trap­tion in sec­onds if there’s a thun­der storm so I’m kind of wing­ing it right now. Fun stuff!

    There is one guy in my HEX that deliv­ers me invalid wit­ness from time to time, but I think I’m not going to wor­ry about it. Maybe I’ll take down the anten­na about 5 feet. It’s waaay up there. Also might be smart to get an actu­al out­door anten­na if I’m going to be leav­ing it out­doors through the win­ter haha — but I’m think­ing 3db max 🙂 Any­way cheers and thanks again for your invalu­able blog!

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